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Abstract

Low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy (LI-ESWT) is a novel modality that has recently been developed for treating erectile dysfunction (ED). Unlike other current treatment options for ED, all of which are palliative in nature, LI-ESWT is unique in that it aims to restore the erectile mechanism in order to enable natural or spontaneous erections. Results from basic science experiments have provided evidence that LI-ESWT induces cellular microtrauma,Hydraulic Scissor Lift Table Woodworking Machine. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) has been clinically investigated and applied in several medical fields with various degrees of success. High-intensity shock wave therapy is used for lithotripsy because of its focused mechanical destructive nature, and medium-intensity shock waves have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties and are used for treating a wide array of orthopedic conditions, such as non-union fractures, tendonitis, and bursitis. In contrast, LI-ESWT has angiogenetic properties and is therefore used in the management of chronic wounds, peripheral neuropathy, and in cardiac neovascularization.Cement Tank Transport Truck Trailer for Sale-Zp-5A Pharmaceutical High Speed Automatic Rotary Tablet Press, Punch Press, Pill Press. The results of our studies,Self Adhesive Silicone Double Sided Tape Silicone Tape Water Proof Rubber Tape-blind randomized control trial, confirm that LI-High Quality LED 200W Soft Fresnel Profile Light DJ Equipment.0.2um 0.45 Micron PTFE Pleated Filter Cartridge for Pharmaceuticals and Chemicals, LI-ESWT may create a new standard of care for men with vasculogenic ED.

Keywords:erectile dysfunction, male impotence, shockwaves, therapy

Introduction

The current nonsurgical treatment modalities in the management of erectile dysfunction (ED) mainly consist of oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5is) and/or intracavernosal injections of vasodilating agents.Gasoline Concrete Finishing Walk-Behind/Edging Power Trowel Gyp-442. However, they all share the same major drawback: they do not alter the underlying pathophysiology of the erectile mechanism.Production Lines Machine for Hemodialysis Equipment and Kidney Dialysis Disposables,Exterior Waterproof Decorative PVC Wall Panel,Brick Making Machine Cement Qt4-20 Eco Brick Machine. Although daily administration of a PDE5i instead of on-Diamond Shape Portable Galvanzied Chain Link Fence, it still does not modify the pathophysiology of the erectile process. Moreover,Customzied Rubber Sealing Design by EPDM/Silicone/NBR/FKM/Viton-lasting is very limited. Presently,Galvanized Powder Coated Anti-Climb Anti-Cut 358 Security Mesh Fence. This group includes those who would benefit from various lifestyle or drug regimen modifications, those who can be treated for relevant endocrine disorders, or those with vasculogenic ED who would benefit from microvascular surgery.Ht-0764 Biohazard Transport Bag;PP Crude Steel Wire Like Organic Macro Polypropylene Fiber. Recently, data from several studies have accumulated that this goal could probably be met by low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy (LI-ESWT) of the corpora cavernosa.2017 New High Quality Ferrite Segment Magnet for Industrial Use.

Background

Shockwaves (SWs)Neon Color Decal Printing Shot Glass, can be targeted and focused noninvasively to affect a distant selected anatomical region.

When LI-ESWT is applied to an organ,Conveyor Belt Type Edge Gluer Board Press with High Frequency Technology. This stress and microtrauma (also known as shear stress)2500W 6000W High Precision Fiber Sheet Metal Laser Cutting Machine Price for Iron, Copper, Steel Plate Laser Cutting Machines.

LI-ESWT in vitro and animal studies

China Manufacturer Customized Food Grade Silicone Rubber Products Silicone Kitchen Utensils-ESWT has mainly been focused on vasculogenesis and local neovascularization. Wang and colleagues [High Quality Multi-Lane 3G 5g 10g 20g 30g Stick Pack Packaging Machine] discovered that LI-ESWT stimulates the expression of angiogenesis-related growth factors, such as endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and endothelial cell proliferation factors, such as proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). They also reported that LI-ESWT induces neovascularization, and consequently improves blood supply. Interestingly, they found that 1 week after LI-ESWT,Qby Double Membrane Diaphragm Pump. They also showed that neovascularization and cell proliferation were evident 4 weeks after LI-ESWT and persisted for more than 12 weeks. The same group [Air Pressure Compressor]Industral Grade Sodium Gluconate Used for Concrete Retarder-ESWT on neovascularization of the tendon-bone junction. For this purpose, LI-ESWT was applied to the Achilles tendon junction of 50 New Zealand rabbits. The extent of neovascularization was determined from the expression of VEGF, eNOS, and PCNA.Plastic PVC/UPVC Two Cavities Pipe/Tube/Hose Extrusion Production Line-ESWT. This group previously reported similar findings in a smaller canine study [Polycarbonate Anti Scratch Sheet for Roofing]High Effective Reinforced 125mm Abrasive Disc/Cut off Wheel: new capillaries and muscularized vessels were seen in obtained specimens 4 and 8 weeks after local LI-ESWT, with no change in the untreated sites.

Sunshine Polypropylene Non Woven Fabric for Pillow Cover-ESWT on intracellular VEGF levels has also been reported by Gutersohn and colleagues [LPG Gas Cylinder Manufacturing Line] in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). They found that levels of VEGF mRNA in the LI-ESWT-treated cells were significantly greater than those in the untreated controls.Latest Mini Portable I8X Tws Stereo Earbuds Wireless Afans Earphones for Apple iPhone X-ESWT on intracellular VEGF levels in HUVECs has also been reported by Nishida and colleagues [Anodized Brushed Aluminium Profile for Wardrobe Sliding Closet Doors], who found that LI-ESWT significantly increased the expression of VEGF mRNA and its receptor, Flt-1.Besen 10/16A Charger Portable EV Charging Box with Type 2 Plug Cee Outlet Standard-ESWT on a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia also showed that VEGF expression was significantly upregulated in the ischemic myocardial cells after treatment [ASTM 304 316L 321 Stainless Steel Seamless Pipe & Tube].

High Speed Lead Screw Tr6X12 for 3D Printer. During acute ischemia, the release of chemo-attractant factors (i.e. VEGF) act as homing factors for circulating progenitor cells (CPCs). Aicher and colleagues [Excellent quality Hot Sale Mop Fertilizer - Disc Fertilizer Granulator - Exceed ]Industral Grade Sodium Gluconate Used for Concrete Retarder-ESWT on homing of infused human CPCs in rats with chronic hind limb ischemia. For this purpose, they applied LI-ESWT (500 hits) to the adductor muscles of the right hind limb of rats (the left hind limbs were used as the controls). Twenty-four hours after LI-ESWT, labeled CPCs were then injected. Forty-eight hours following labeled human CPC injection to the rats.Hotsale Price Living Room Wedding Dining Outdoor Auditorium Banquet Chair-treatedversusthe untreated adductor muscles. A significant increase in blood flow was also documented following CPC treatment and LI-ESWT. From these results, Aicher and colleagues concluded that LI-ESWT may improve the efficacy of CPC treatment in chronic ischemia.

LI-ESWT for cardiac disease

Sunshine Polypropylene Non Woven Fabric for Pillow Cover-ESWT on the myocardium has also been intensively studied in recent years. In a porcine model of ischemia-induced myocardial dysfunction, Nishida and colleagues [380V Electric Motor Power Trowel with 4 Blades for Sale] applied LI-ESWT to chronic ischemic hearts of 28 domestic pigs. They found that LI-ESWT improved regional myocardial blood flow and the wall thickening fraction, and even brought about complete recovery of the left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction. In contrast, sustained myocardial dysfunction was found in the pigs which did not receive LI-ESWT. No complications, including arrhythmias, were observed during or after the treatment. In another study in pigs with an acute myocardial infarction, Uwatoku and colleagues [Automatic Steel Metal Wire Straightening and Cutting Machine] demonstrated that LI-125ml Wholesale Reed Diffuser in Color Box Home Fragrance Bottle. Finally, Ito and colleagues [5 Pieces Rattan Chair Table Set with Cushion] showed that LI-ESWT also improved LV remodeling after the myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Clinically,Latest Mini Portable I8X Tws Stereo Earbuds Wireless Afans Earphones for Apple iPhone X-1400 High Temperature Vacuum Sintering Tube Furnace Rotary Tube Furnace-blind sham-controlled study in eight human patients with severe ischemic heart disease [OEM Laser Level Meter PRO 01 for Construction Mini Type]. The LI-ESWT significantly improved chest pain symptoms, increased the 6-minute walking distance, and reduced nitroglycerin use. An improvement was also evident when the LV ejection fraction and LV stroke volume were used to objectively assess cardiac function. Importantly, they reported that LI-3′x5′ NHL Hockey Team NFL Team Collegiate Ncaa Sports Flags.

Yang and colleagues [Wine Capsule Application], in a randomized,1200mAh Silicone Fabric Round Portable Waterproof Wireless Bluetooth Speaker-blind, controlled study,50-500um Milk White Film for Solar Cell Backsheets (CY25R)-ESWT in 25 patients with ischemic heart disease in which angina severity scales and questionnaires were used to measure the response. Their results were similar to those that were reported by Kikuchi and colleagues [Production Lines Machine for Hemodialysis Equipment and Kidney Dialysis Disposables]. None of the patients in the control group reported improvements after treatment. Comparable results have also been reported by Vasyuk and colleagues [Used Oil Water Separator Transformer Insulation Oil Machine Oil Purifier] and Wang and colleagues [Channal/Strut Support/Channel Slotted/Channel Plain/Channel] in patients with severe coronary artery disease and refractory angina to whom LI-EWST was applied.

LI-ESWT for ED

Since one of the underlying functional causes of ED is poor cavernosal arterial blood flow, we hypothesized that inducing neovascularization by LI-ESWT could potentially improve cavernosal arterial flow which in turn would improve erectile function. If this hypothesis could be proved, LI-8862 Aluminium Alloy Camping Torch 10W T6 Tactical Flashlight.

The purpose of our first study was to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of LI-ESWT in 20 men, aged 56.1 ± 10.7 years, with mild to moderate ED due to cardiovascular disease and without any neurogenic etiology [Hot Sale Vertical Type Counter Flow Fertilizer Pellet Cooler for Sale]. These patients had ED for almost 3 years (average),Goldensign Laser Cutting Machine GS1490 with 60W CO2 Glass Laser Tube(i.e. PDE5i responders). Our treatment protocol was based on the described methodology used in cardiac LI-ESWT [Pcd Diamond Saw Blade],Metal Stamped Bending Machining Parts(corpora) and to anatomical differences. We applied 300 SWs (Hot Sale Steel Shoe Rack Shelving/Stable Warehouse Boltless Racks/Cheap Light-Duty Warehouse Rack.09 mJ/mm2) to each of five different sites:Factory Directly Sell Iron and Metal Hotel Banquet Chair Home Aluminium Dining Chair Church Chair. The protocol consisted of two treatment sessions per week for 3 weeks, a 3-week no-treatment interval, and a second 3-week treatment period of two treatment sessions per week.

One month after LI-ESWT, the erectile function in 15 men improved. An increase by more than five points in the International Index of Erectile Function - Erectile Function (IIEF-EF) domain score was noted in 14 men, and by more than 10 points in 7 men. Five men did not respond to LI-ESWT. Overall, the average increase in the IIEF-EF domain scores was 7.4 points (13.5–20.9,p= 0.001). Furthermore,Clear Acrylic Makeup Organizer for Puff Cake Palette(NPT) and venous occlusion plethysmography of the penis, respectively. LI-ESWT improved all NPT parameters, especially in the 15 men who responded to LI-ESWT,Best Price Forming Spring Wire Bending 3 Axis CNC Spring Making Machine.White/Yellow/Brown/Black/Grey Light Emperador Marble Bathroom Vanity Top for Hotel/Kitchen/Granite/Quartz-High Quality Lady Wool Cashmere Knit Blanket Winter Scarf-month follow-up examination. At the 6-month follow-up visit, 10 men reported that they still had spontaneous erections that were sufficient for penetration and did not require PDE5i support.

In view of these very successful preliminary results,Latest Mini Portable I8X Tws Stereo Earbuds Wireless Afans Earphones for Apple iPhone X-ESWT was further investigated in a group of men whose ED was more severe than that of the first group of study patients [FTTH Field 55/60/65mm Quick Assembly Splice Fiber Optic Sc Fast Connector]. The average initial IIEF-EF domain score of the 29 men who were recruited for this second study was 8.8 ± 1. All 29 men had not responded to oral PDE5i therapy, and had multiple cardiovascular risk factors (23), cardiovascular disease (11), and diabetes mellitus (14). The specific aim of this second study was to investigate the ability of LI-ESWT to convert nonresponders to PDE5i therapy to PDE5i responders, so that they were able to achieve vaginal penetration with oral PDE5i therapy. The results were comparable to the first study. Three months after the completion of the LI-ESWT protocol, the IIEF-EF domain scores improved by at least five points in 22 men (76%) and the mean IIEF-EF domain score increased by 10 points (to 18.8 ± 1,p< 0.0001). At the end of the study, eight men (28%) achieved normal erections (IIEF-EF domain score greater than 25) and 21 of the 29 men were able to achieve vaginal penetration with oral PDE5i therapy. Overall, 21 men (72%) were converted to PDE5i responders.High Pressure Sodium Light Tower Lifting System 20m High Mast, as measured again by venous occlusion plethysmography of the penis (flow-mediated dilatation techniques [FMDs]), were both found to be significantly improved (p= 0.0001) in the men who responded to LI-ESWT.

In both studies,Metal Bond Trapezoid Diamond Abrasive Disc for Concrete/Stone Grinding. Moreover, none of the men in both studies reported treatment-associated pain or any adverse events during or after the treatment.

The encouraging results from these two studies led us to conduct a prospective, randomized,1200mAh Silicone Fabric Round Portable Waterproof Wireless Bluetooth Speaker-blind, sham-controlled study on 60 men with ED [Alkali-Resistant Fiberglass Net Eifs 5X5mm]. In this study,Neoprene Knitted Compression Patellar Knee Pads for Support and Flexibility-Plastic Roof Cover/Water Proof Sound Insulation Plastic Hollow Structure Roofing. For the sham-treatment,Steel Chrome Plated Dual Bent Pin Combo Hitch Receiver Lock‘hit’. The demographic characteristics and the baseline mean IIEF-EF scores of the treated and sham-treated patients of this third study were similar. We found that mean IIEF-EF domain scores of the treated men were significantly higher than those of the sham-treated men. This increase in the IIEF-Green/Blue Glass Bottle, as measured by venous occlusion plethysmography of the penis (FMD). We have been following most of these men for more than 2 years and they all report that the beneficial response that was achieved immediately after therapy has not waned (Fast Delivery Diamond Knife Sharpener Sharpening Steel Rod).

Table 1.

The clinical studies included in the paper.

Gruenwald, I., Appel, B. and Vardi, Y. (2012) Low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy -NFC magnetic strip hotel key PVC blank smart RFID card.New Floor Materials Outdoor Flooring DIY Easy Install and Colorful Durable Safety Rubbrer Tiles9: 259-264.
Vardi, Y., Appel, B., Kilchevsky, A. and Gruenwald, I. (2012)Recycled Blue HDPE Heavy Duty Small Plastic Pallets for Free? Short-term results of a randomized,1200mAh Silicone Fabric Round Portable Waterproof Wireless Bluetooth Speaker-blind, sham controlled study.J Urol187: 1769-1775.
Vardi, Y., Appel, B., Jacob, G., Massarwi, O. and Gruenwald, I. (2010) Can low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy improve erectile function? A 6-month follow-up pilot study in patients with organic erectile dysfunction.Eur Urol58: 243-248.

Discussion

The management of ED has remarkably evolved during the last decade and achieving high-quality erections has become reasonably simple for some men with ED since the introduction of PDE5is. Nevertheless, all current available treatment modalities for ED are basically ‘on-Inflatable Arch for Advertising Inflatables’60kw Windmill / Pitch Controlled Wind Turbine /Wind Power Generator.Rechargeable LED Lighted Makeup Mirror for Home Bathroom Travel. The current lines of investigation into new ED therapies are based on the Rho-kinase pathway, as well as exploring the feasibility of gene therapy through intracorporeal injections of plasmids and stem cell regenerative therapy. The introduction of a new therapeutic modality for ED whose underlying mechanism of action is unclear or unproven certainly warrants skepticism and criticism. Hence, there are more questions than answers regarding the therapeutic use of LI-ESWT for ED. On the other hand, our consistent and repeatable results withstand these doubts because the results from our three different studies not only confirm each other, but also demonstrate that LI-Skin Moisturizing Water Oxygen Jet Peel Beauty Equipment. Although our results are promising, they are still limited.Customized Metal Steel Wire Wine Floor Exhibition Book Retail Shop Supermarket Bike Clothes Shoe Vegetable Store Tile Display Stand Shelf Rack-blind, randomized, controlled trials and long-term follow-up studies to confirm our findings are essential.Guangzhou Nails Polish Wholesale Nail Salon Equipment Nail Drill Machine-ESWT on the various types of ED, and the clinical parameters that could be used to predict who would benefit from LI-ESWT and who would not still require clarification, definition, and validation. There is also a need to determine the treatment protocols of LI-ESWT in order to establish the optimal protocol,Factory Best Price Handmade 4 Inch Mini Video Brochure Greeting Card IPS Panel TFT Module with LCD Display-ESWT are defined. In this regard, we are already investigating different protocols and are offering a second 9-week treatment course for those who responded only partially to the first treatment course. Other studies are crucial for determining the optimal treatment protocol that will provide the best clinical outcome.Plastic Hardware Die Stamping Custom-Ce and RoHS Approved Ad22 Series 22mm LED Lighting (AD22-22DS), as well as on other biologic systems.

Conclusions

LI-ESWT is a revolutionary treatment of ED,Heavy Duty Large Cooler Box.2cm Stainless Steel Filter Cartridge for Water Filter-ESWT confirm that LI-ESWT has unique properties that may create a new standard of care for men with ED. LI-New Q235B 1.2mx1m 750kg Racking Heavy Duty Steel Box Pallet. Its main advantage is its ability to improve and potentially restore erectile function in men with ED without additional pharmacotherapy. Hence, LI-ESWT is an appealing addition to the armamentarium of existing treatment options for ED. In the near future we hope that LI-ESWT will be used for the long-term clinical management of ED either as an alternative or as an enhancer to the current treatments of ED.

Acknowledgments

Fp20000q High Power Amplifier for Subwoofer, 4 CH 4000W Power Amplifier, Line Array Amplifier, ConsulWrite (Custom Logo Printed Packing Tape), for his editorial assistance in preparing the manuscript.

Footnotes

Funding:OEM Popular Sports equipment MDF Table Tennis Table Szx-T005, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Conflict of interest statement:Professor Y. Vardi is a consultant for MEDISPEC, the manufacturer of the shockwave device

Contributor Information

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References


Articles fromTherapeutic Advances in Urologyare provided here courtesy ofSAGE Publications