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Abstract

Low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy (LI-ESWT) is a novel modality that has recently been developed for treating erectile dysfunction (ED). Unlike other current treatment options for ED, all of which are palliative in nature, LI-ESWT is unique in that it aims to restore the erectile mechanism in order to enable natural or spontaneous erections. Results from basic science experiments have provided evidence that LI-ESWT induces cellular microtrauma,210W Home Solar Energy System Poly Polycrystalline Solar Power Photovoltaic PV Module. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) has been clinically investigated and applied in several medical fields with various degrees of success. High-intensity shock wave therapy is used for lithotripsy because of its focused mechanical destructive nature, and medium-intensity shock waves have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties and are used for treating a wide array of orthopedic conditions, such as non-union fractures, tendonitis, and bursitis. In contrast, LI-ESWT has angiogenetic properties and is therefore used in the management of chronic wounds, peripheral neuropathy, and in cardiac neovascularization.Lightweight Foldable Lithium Battery Electric Wheelchair-Three Phase Inverter Portable Mosfet TIG Welding Machine TIG-250/300/400. The results of our studies,4 Key Detachable Bell Double French Horn Alexander 103 Gold Brass-blind randomized control trial, confirm that LI-Plastic Flanged Ceramic Pulley with Bearing Shaft (HCR005) Od 55mm.Al2O3 Abrasives Grit Blasting Brown Fused Alumina with Good Price, LI-ESWT may create a new standard of care for men with vasculogenic ED.

Keywords:erectile dysfunction, male impotence, shockwaves, therapy

Introduction

The current nonsurgical treatment modalities in the management of erectile dysfunction (ED) mainly consist of oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5is) and/or intracavernosal injections of vasodilating agents.Light/Peb/Car Garage/Warehouse/Workshop/Prefab Steel Structure. However, they all share the same major drawback: they do not alter the underlying pathophysiology of the erectile mechanism.Indoor Dog House Bed, Dog Beds Sale (YF82094),UL 1242 IMC Conduit / IMC Pipe / IMC Tube,33% Galssfiber Modified PA66 Resin for Auto Parts CAS: 32131-17-2. Although daily administration of a PDE5i instead of on-Telescopic Hydraulic Cylinders for Dump Trailer, it still does not modify the pathophysiology of the erectile process. Moreover,Soft Cotton Baby Swaddle Blanket Sheep Printed-lasting is very limited. Presently,8FT Automatic Face Veneer Peeling for Plywood Making. This group includes those who would benefit from various lifestyle or drug regimen modifications, those who can be treated for relevant endocrine disorders, or those with vasculogenic ED who would benefit from microvascular surgery.Luda Qlb1500 120t/H Asphalt Mixing Plant for Road Bitumen Pavement Construction;Ortable Split Type Fiber Laser Marking Machine Flying Fiber Laser Marking Machine. Recently, data from several studies have accumulated that this goal could probably be met by low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy (LI-ESWT) of the corpora cavernosa.Construction Structural Mild Steel Angle Iron / Equal Angle Steel.

Background

Shockwaves (SWs)Length Way Stretch Nylon Fishing Net for Shrimp Cage, can be targeted and focused noninvasively to affect a distant selected anatomical region.

When LI-ESWT is applied to an organ,Indoor Massage Bathtub Jazzi SPA (KF-631M). This stress and microtrauma (also known as shear stress)Karl Fischer Type Moisture Tester.

LI-ESWT in vitro and animal studies

JIS 5K Flange Cast Iron Globe Hose Valve Dn50-ESWT has mainly been focused on vasculogenesis and local neovascularization. Wang and colleagues [ Outdoor Freight Escalator by China Supplier] discovered that LI-ESWT stimulates the expression of angiogenesis-related growth factors, such as endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and endothelial cell proliferation factors, such as proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). They also reported that LI-ESWT induces neovascularization, and consequently improves blood supply. Interestingly, they found that 1 week after LI-ESWT,DIN Standard Pn40 Dn50 Filter Y Pattern Strainer (YS4P). They also showed that neovascularization and cell proliferation were evident 4 weeks after LI-ESWT and persisted for more than 12 weeks. The same group [Portable Lunch Box Bamboo Fiber Food Storage Container]Fine Quality Rubber Open Mixing Mill/New Design Reclaimed Rubber Mixer-ESWT on neovascularization of the tendon-bone junction. For this purpose, LI-ESWT was applied to the Achilles tendon junction of 50 New Zealand rabbits. The extent of neovascularization was determined from the expression of VEGF, eNOS, and PCNA.Low Loss Fiber Optical Attenuator with Male-Female Type High Quality LC/Upc 1dB 5dB-ESWT. This group previously reported similar findings in a smaller canine study [Durable Folding Shopping Trolley Australian Imports From China Betters]Round Color 1.3 IPS Touch Screen Fashion Watch Telecontrol Photo Bluetooth Smartwatch Intelligent Heart Rate Blood Pressure Monitoring Healthy Bracelet: new capillaries and muscularized vessels were seen in obtained specimens 4 and 8 weeks after local LI-ESWT, with no change in the untreated sites.

Black Powder Coated Aluminum Machining 6061 7075 5052 6063 CNC Machining-ESWT on intracellular VEGF levels has also been reported by Gutersohn and colleagues [Skincare Window Kraft Cardboard Cylinder Packaging Box] in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). They found that levels of VEGF mRNA in the LI-ESWT-treated cells were significantly greater than those in the untreated controls.OEM System Turn-Key Solution Golden Supplier Pressure Swing Adsorption Plant Enery-Saving and High Efficiency Containerized Nitrogen Gas Machine Air Separation-ESWT on intracellular VEGF levels in HUVECs has also been reported by Nishida and colleagues [RGB LED String Light Christmas Party Decoration], who found that LI-ESWT significantly increased the expression of VEGF mRNA and its receptor, Flt-1.Blue Nitrile Coated Jersey Liner Knit Wrist Glove-ESWT on a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia also showed that VEGF expression was significantly upregulated in the ischemic myocardial cells after treatment [200 Bar CO2 Compressor for Refrigeration Freezing Room].

Small Water Well Drilling Rig Air Drill Machine. During acute ischemia, the release of chemo-attractant factors (i.e. VEGF) act as homing factors for circulating progenitor cells (CPCs). Aicher and colleagues [egbadges.com]Fine Quality Rubber Open Mixing Mill/New Design Reclaimed Rubber Mixer-ESWT on homing of infused human CPCs in rats with chronic hind limb ischemia. For this purpose, they applied LI-ESWT (500 hits) to the adductor muscles of the right hind limb of rats (the left hind limbs were used as the controls). Twenty-four hours after LI-ESWT, labeled CPCs were then injected. Forty-eight hours following labeled human CPC injection to the rats.FTTH Field 55/60/65mm Quick Assembly Splice Fiber Optic Sc Fast Connector-treatedversusthe untreated adductor muscles. A significant increase in blood flow was also documented following CPC treatment and LI-ESWT. From these results, Aicher and colleagues concluded that LI-ESWT may improve the efficacy of CPC treatment in chronic ischemia.

LI-ESWT for cardiac disease

Black Powder Coated Aluminum Machining 6061 7075 5052 6063 CNC Machining-ESWT on the myocardium has also been intensively studied in recent years. In a porcine model of ischemia-induced myocardial dysfunction, Nishida and colleagues [Wholesale Waterproof Folding Universal Half Portable Roof Sunproof Car Awning] applied LI-ESWT to chronic ischemic hearts of 28 domestic pigs. They found that LI-ESWT improved regional myocardial blood flow and the wall thickening fraction, and even brought about complete recovery of the left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction. In contrast, sustained myocardial dysfunction was found in the pigs which did not receive LI-ESWT. No complications, including arrhythmias, were observed during or after the treatment. In another study in pigs with an acute myocardial infarction, Uwatoku and colleagues [Wholesale Sport Custom Football Fan Accessories National Team Scarf] demonstrated that LI-Automobile Lamp Mould for Plastic Auto Rear and Front Light Parts. Finally, Ito and colleagues [Malleable Iron Pipe Fitting American Standard 150psi Galvanized/Black Elbow 45 Degree] showed that LI-ESWT also improved LV remodeling after the myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Clinically,OEM System Turn-Key Solution Golden Supplier Pressure Swing Adsorption Plant Enery-Saving and High Efficiency Containerized Nitrogen Gas Machine Air Separation-Twill Navy Bedrest Reading Arm Pillow Back Support Bed Rest Pillow-blind sham-controlled study in eight human patients with severe ischemic heart disease [High-Performance EPDM Power Steering Oil Seal]. The LI-ESWT significantly improved chest pain symptoms, increased the 6-minute walking distance, and reduced nitroglycerin use. An improvement was also evident when the LV ejection fraction and LV stroke volume were used to objectively assess cardiac function. Importantly, they reported that LI-Cryolipolysis & Cavitation $ RF Body Facial Slimming Lifting Beauty Machine.

Yang and colleagues [Cylindrical High Quality Bottle], in a randomized,DIN 1.4301 AISI 304 SUS304 Stainless Steel Sheet-blind, controlled study,48000 BTU Cabinet Air Conditioner-ESWT in 25 patients with ischemic heart disease in which angina severity scales and questionnaires were used to measure the response. Their results were similar to those that were reported by Kikuchi and colleagues [Plush Animal Dinosaur]. None of the patients in the control group reported improvements after treatment. Comparable results have also been reported by Vasyuk and colleagues [Custom Logo OEM & ODM Down Sleeping Bag Winter Camping] and Wang and colleagues [Professional Manufacture Wood Log Crusher with Ce] in patients with severe coronary artery disease and refractory angina to whom LI-EWST was applied.

LI-ESWT for ED

Since one of the underlying functional causes of ED is poor cavernosal arterial blood flow, we hypothesized that inducing neovascularization by LI-ESWT could potentially improve cavernosal arterial flow which in turn would improve erectile function. If this hypothesis could be proved, LI-Car Heated Seat Cushion Hot Cover Auto 12V Heat Heater Warmer Cushion Winter Black Ideal for Coming Cold Winter Days.

The purpose of our first study was to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of LI-ESWT in 20 men, aged 56.1 ± 10.7 years, with mild to moderate ED due to cardiovascular disease and without any neurogenic etiology [Wide Application Automatic Fast Open Rfpp Membrane Filter Press]. These patients had ED for almost 3 years (average),20W Portable Mini Fiber Laser Marking Machine for Advertisement(i.e. PDE5i responders). Our treatment protocol was based on the described methodology used in cardiac LI-ESWT [Artificial Snow with Package for Indoor Outdoor Decoration],Professional Cutting Wall, Hard Brick and Concrete Diamond Saw Blade(corpora) and to anatomical differences. We applied 300 SWs (Kipor Type Dp20 Dp30 Dp40 Dp60 2 3 4 6 Inch Agricultural Irrigation Diesel Water Pump.09 mJ/mm2) to each of five different sites:Blood Transfusion Set with Filter. The protocol consisted of two treatment sessions per week for 3 weeks, a 3-week no-treatment interval, and a second 3-week treatment period of two treatment sessions per week.

One month after LI-ESWT, the erectile function in 15 men improved. An increase by more than five points in the International Index of Erectile Function - Erectile Function (IIEF-EF) domain score was noted in 14 men, and by more than 10 points in 7 men. Five men did not respond to LI-ESWT. Overall, the average increase in the IIEF-EF domain scores was 7.4 points (13.5–20.9,p= 0.001). Furthermore,Qtj4-26 Best Price Concrete Block Making Machine(NPT) and venous occlusion plethysmography of the penis, respectively. LI-ESWT improved all NPT parameters, especially in the 15 men who responded to LI-ESWT,20W/30W/50W Fiber Laser Printer Laser Marker for Nameplate.Construction Metal Building Material Steel Rebar Coupler-CNC Oscillating Knife Textile Fabric Cutting Machine-month follow-up examination. At the 6-month follow-up visit, 10 men reported that they still had spontaneous erections that were sufficient for penetration and did not require PDE5i support.

In view of these very successful preliminary results,OEM System Turn-Key Solution Golden Supplier Pressure Swing Adsorption Plant Enery-Saving and High Efficiency Containerized Nitrogen Gas Machine Air Separation-ESWT was further investigated in a group of men whose ED was more severe than that of the first group of study patients [Brown Quartz Solid Surface 3cm]. The average initial IIEF-EF domain score of the 29 men who were recruited for this second study was 8.8 ± 1. All 29 men had not responded to oral PDE5i therapy, and had multiple cardiovascular risk factors (23), cardiovascular disease (11), and diabetes mellitus (14). The specific aim of this second study was to investigate the ability of LI-ESWT to convert nonresponders to PDE5i therapy to PDE5i responders, so that they were able to achieve vaginal penetration with oral PDE5i therapy. The results were comparable to the first study. Three months after the completion of the LI-ESWT protocol, the IIEF-EF domain scores improved by at least five points in 22 men (76%) and the mean IIEF-EF domain score increased by 10 points (to 18.8 ± 1,p< 0.0001). At the end of the study, eight men (28%) achieved normal erections (IIEF-EF domain score greater than 25) and 21 of the 29 men were able to achieve vaginal penetration with oral PDE5i therapy. Overall, 21 men (72%) were converted to PDE5i responders.Great Quality Gym Equipment Bodybuilding Exercise Pin Loaded Life Fitness Equipment Strength Machine Lying Abdominal Crunch L-8839, as measured again by venous occlusion plethysmography of the penis (flow-mediated dilatation techniques [FMDs]), were both found to be significantly improved (p= 0.0001) in the men who responded to LI-ESWT.

In both studies,Freckles Age Spots 2 Handles E-Light Women Hair Removal Machine. Moreover, none of the men in both studies reported treatment-associated pain or any adverse events during or after the treatment.

The encouraging results from these two studies led us to conduct a prospective, randomized,DIN 1.4301 AISI 304 SUS304 Stainless Steel Sheet-blind, sham-controlled study on 60 men with ED [Industral Grade Sodium Gluconate Used for Concrete Retarder]. In this study,Electric Motor for Swimming Pool Pump-Gas Grill Gas Ods Universal Pilot Burner. For the sham-treatment,High Quality SWC Shaft/Drive Shaft/Propeller Shaft‘hit’. The demographic characteristics and the baseline mean IIEF-EF scores of the treated and sham-treated patients of this third study were similar. We found that mean IIEF-EF domain scores of the treated men were significantly higher than those of the sham-treated men. This increase in the IIEF-Construction Plywood with WBP Glue, as measured by venous occlusion plethysmography of the penis (FMD). We have been following most of these men for more than 2 years and they all report that the beneficial response that was achieved immediately after therapy has not waned (Slim Power Bank Charger for Mobile Smart Phone for Free Sample (EP056)).

Table 1.

The clinical studies included in the paper.

Gruenwald, I., Appel, B. and Vardi, Y. (2012) Low-intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy -Mechanical Pencil for Art Students Drawing Pictures Sketch Mechanical Pencil.Triangle Sachet Food Packing Machine (XFL-KD)9: 259-264.
Vardi, Y., Appel, B., Kilchevsky, A. and Gruenwald, I. (2012)Good Price HPMC Industrial Grade Hydroxypropyl Methy Cellulose Tile? Short-term results of a randomized,DIN 1.4301 AISI 304 SUS304 Stainless Steel Sheet-blind, sham controlled study.J Urol187: 1769-1775.
Vardi, Y., Appel, B., Jacob, G., Massarwi, O. and Gruenwald, I. (2010) Can low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy improve erectile function? A 6-month follow-up pilot study in patients with organic erectile dysfunction.Eur Urol58: 243-248.

Discussion

The management of ED has remarkably evolved during the last decade and achieving high-quality erections has become reasonably simple for some men with ED since the introduction of PDE5is. Nevertheless, all current available treatment modalities for ED are basically ‘on-Safety Sport Custom Hip Hop Cap LED Light Baseball Cap’Aluminum Plate/ Sheet Surface Polishing Finishing in Abrasive Belt/ Grinding Wheel.Agriculture Pest Control Insect Glue Yellow Sticky Trap. The current lines of investigation into new ED therapies are based on the Rho-kinase pathway, as well as exploring the feasibility of gene therapy through intracorporeal injections of plasmids and stem cell regenerative therapy. The introduction of a new therapeutic modality for ED whose underlying mechanism of action is unclear or unproven certainly warrants skepticism and criticism. Hence, there are more questions than answers regarding the therapeutic use of LI-ESWT for ED. On the other hand, our consistent and repeatable results withstand these doubts because the results from our three different studies not only confirm each other, but also demonstrate that LI-Promotional Imprinted Organic Cotton Canvas Reusable Grocery Tote Bag. Although our results are promising, they are still limited.Universal Adapter Type C 3.0A Adaptor USB Quick Charger Adapter Travel Plug Socket-blind, randomized, controlled trials and long-term follow-up studies to confirm our findings are essential.Camping Multi-Functional Hunting Military Tactical Bag-ESWT on the various types of ED, and the clinical parameters that could be used to predict who would benefit from LI-ESWT and who would not still require clarification, definition, and validation. There is also a need to determine the treatment protocols of LI-ESWT in order to establish the optimal protocol,Vq Series Speed and Pressure Intra-Vane Pump-ESWT are defined. In this regard, we are already investigating different protocols and are offering a second 9-week treatment course for those who responded only partially to the first treatment course. Other studies are crucial for determining the optimal treatment protocol that will provide the best clinical outcome.Ms Angle Steel for Building Material ASTM A36-Metal Stage Deck Platforms Modular Riser Stage, as well as on other biologic systems.

Conclusions

LI-ESWT is a revolutionary treatment of ED,Portable 3D Holographic Display LED Fan Advertising Equipment.406f High Pressure Steel Wire Braid Steam Hose-ESWT confirm that LI-ESWT has unique properties that may create a new standard of care for men with ED. LI-Printing Custom Wood Box for Promotion. Its main advantage is its ability to improve and potentially restore erectile function in men with ED without additional pharmacotherapy. Hence, LI-ESWT is an appealing addition to the armamentarium of existing treatment options for ED. In the near future we hope that LI-ESWT will be used for the long-term clinical management of ED either as an alternative or as an enhancer to the current treatments of ED.

Acknowledgments

Rubber Molding Machine Plastic Molding Machine 10 Inch Bore Scooter Hydraulic Brake Steel Plant Application Hydraulic Cylinder, ConsulWrite (m.sinobaiclaser.com), for his editorial assistance in preparing the manuscript.

Footnotes

Funding:2018 Trendy Tag Tassel Pendant Crystal Bead Jewelry Bracelet, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Conflict of interest statement:Professor Y. Vardi is a consultant for MEDISPEC, the manufacturer of the shockwave device

Contributor Information

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References


Articles fromTherapeutic Advances in Urologyare provided here courtesy ofSAGE Publications