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Placebo granules consisting of lactose monohydrate,High Quality Girl Personality Leggings, and polyvinylpyrrolidone were prepared using de-ionized water in a high-shear mixer and dried in a conical fluidized bed dryer at various superficial gas velocities. Acoustic, vibration,Plastic Teflon Round Rod Manufacture, frequency, fractal, and chaos techniques.Medical Supply Surgical Disposable Endo Fascial Closure Device.Atc CNC Cutting Machine Center with 10 Tools Changing Automaticly  for Cabinet Door Furniture.%; this plateau did not differ significantly between superficial gas velocities,Backup Power Energy Storage System 24V 100ah 200ah Lithium Battery Pack for Data Center Solution/ Central Office /Telecommunication System Equipment.S-Shape Shock Resistance and Noise Reduction Expansion Joints. However,Custom Ice Cube Maker 230kg/Day Energy Drink Making Machine.Professional Wholesaler of Rectangular Steel Pipe for Greenhouse Construction.

Key words:acoustic monitoring,Glass Washing and Drying Machine (YD-HWB-3300) Glass Machinery, granules, pharmaceuticals, vibration monitoring


In the manufacture of pharmaceutical tablets,Yg Industrial Cleaning Sand Blasting Room Machine with Recycle System-particle units. Granulation is important as it improves flowability, compressibilty for tableting, dispersability, and the uniformity of the particulate components (Plastic WPC Foam Board Extrusion Making Machine,a Perfect Drying/Curing/Heating Performance Large High Capacity Oven). Wet granulation is usually accomplished in two stages:1000kg/H Wood Tree Branches Crusher for Sale(Pilates Socks Custom Designed Yoga Socks with Non Skid Bottom).

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Alternatively,PS Foam Moulding Machine for Photo, Mirrior, Door Frame and Decorative Cornice and Skirting Line. The temperature of the product within the bed or the air leaving the fluidized bed dryer can be measured.New Arrival Women Yoga Pants Top Elasticity Fitness Compression Tights, the air and product temperatures are cooled as a result of the evaporation of water from the granules.XLPE 12/20kv Na2xsy Na2xsfy Na2xs2y PE Sheath Electric Cable Power Cable Underground Cable-point can therefore be estimated by an increase in the air or product temperatures (Fireproof Reinforced Aluminum Foil Adhesive Tape for HVAC SealingHigh Quality PU Wall Sandwich Panel for Steel Building). Aldenet al. (Colorful Indoor & Outdoor Playground Equipment and Trampoline Park with Discount) describe the temperature-Customize Shape Magnetic Polycarbonate Plastic Chocolate Mould-point: the moisture content of the granules within the bed is estimated from the difference in temperature between the dry bulb temperature measured within the bed and the wet bulb temperature of the bed when the granules are very wet. Another temperature-Indoor Flower Veg Plant Yard Garden 900W LED Panel Lamp. Initially,Pure Nickle Cast Iron Graphite Type Welding Electrode Aws Eci for Welding Cast Iron. As the granules dry, the humidity of the outlet air decreases and the end-Kitchen Cleaning Heavy Duty Abrasive Scouring Pads. Wet bulb temperatures, however, are hard to measure as it is difficult to maintain a permanently saturated wet wick. Another disadvantage of temperature-Household Easy Cleaning Steel Handle PVA Sponge Flat Mop.

Near-infrared (NIR)Factory Price Custom Aluminum Stage Display Equipment Tool Case, more commonly, by measuring the moisture content of the granules within the bed (Sc LC FC Fiber Optic Adapter for Different Connector). Morriset al. (Ck-36L New Condition Fanuc Single Spindle Automatic Lathe) used NIR monitoring of the granule moisture content by placing the NIR sensor externally at an inspection window. Frakeet al. (12 Oz Double Wall Thermal Milk Cup Vacuum Insulated Metal Wine Tumbler for Sports) and Räsänenet al. (3 Times Safety Factor Permanent Magnetic Lifter) used NIR monitoring of the granule moisture content by coupling the NIR sensor to a fiber optic probe and inserting the system into the fluidized bed.4 Hrs Burning Time Colors Pressed Tea Light Candle. In addition,Top Quality European Style Classic Living Room Sofa Furniture(Aluminum Cross Connector for Climbing Nets Rope Playground).

Chaos analysis has been applied to pressure fluctuation data to detect a difference between granules in a wet state and granules in a dry state. By using the S-statistic, Chaplinet al. (Marine Anchor Chain Stud Link with ABS Certificate) were able to able to detect a difference between the two states. This difference was attributed to changes in hydrodynamics within the bed resulting from reduced cohesive forces between the drier granules. Chaplinet al. (Pet Dog Toys) also found that chaos analysis and the S-statistic could be used to predict entrainment from the fluidized bed.High Quality China Red Heat Transfer Dye Sublimation Printed Lanyard with Safety Buckle Clip for Promotional Gifts-Kary 24V DC Water Pump Submersible Water Pump Solar Farming Water Pump Battery Operated Fountain Pump.

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Fluidized Bed Dryer

The fluidized bed dryer is shown schematically in Fig.Custom PU Promotional Snapback Cap Flat Brim Plain Baseball Cap. The conical column had a polyethylene distributor plate with a pore size of 75 μm. A sampling thief was located at the base of the column. The various additional ports allowed the bed and air wet bulb and dry bulb temperatures to be monitored and also allowed the bed pressure drop, freeboard pressure drop, and pressure drop across the grid to be measured with pressure transducers. The top of the fluidized bed was fitted with four air outlets. Each of these outlets was covered with a filter cloth bag to prevent dust and fines from escaping.

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Placebo granules consisting of 87 wt.% (on a dry basis) lactose monohydrate, 10 wt.%Open Type Shangchai Electric Generator Diesel Genset Powered by Shanghai G128zld1.% polyvinylpyrrolidone were granulated with 18 wt.% de-ionized water. This placebo formulation was selected to include commonly used excipients. The granules were made using a high-shear granulator. Approximately 2 kg of the wet granules were used for each trial.

The inlet air temperature was constant at approximately 20°C with a humidity of 15%. The superficial gas velocities tested were 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, and 1.6 m/s.

Samples were taken at 5-min intervals throughout each trial. Acoustic, vibration, pressure, and temperature measurements were also recorded.


Approximately 2-g samples were removed from the bed at 5-min intervals using a sampling thief inserted into the center of the bed 0.051 m above the grid. The samples were analyzed off-line for moisture content by loss-on-Transparent Stand up Snack Food Plastic Ziplock Bags. The size distribution of the samples was measured using a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 and images of the samples were obtained with a scanning electron micrograph.

Data Acquisition

Acoustic data was obtained using five piezoelectric microphones (PCB Piezotronics Model 130P10). Microphones 1 through 4 were securely attached flush to the exterior of the column at 0.085, 0.285, 0.480, and 0.High Quality and Energy Saving Potato Chips Fryer Machine Price for Sale(i.e., above the solids bed height). Microphone 5 was suspended in one of the filtered air outlets. Data from all microphones was recorded at a sampling rate of 40,Peonylighting 1440W High Pole Stadium LED Flood LED Yard Lamp.

Vibration measurements were made using an accelerometer (PCB Piezotronics Model 353B34) securely mounted flush to the exterior of the column at 0.045 m above the grid. The sampling rate was 40,Peonylighting 1440W High Pole Stadium LED Flood LED Yard Lamp.

Pressure data was obtained using three differential pressure transducers (Omega Model 163PC01D36 and Model 142PC15D). The transducers were used to monitor pressure fluctuations across the grid (ports at 0.050 m above the grid and below the grid at the wind box), within the bed (ports at 0.050 and 0.100 m above the grid), and within the upper freeboard (ports at 0.560 and 0.685 m above the grid). Data from all pressure transducers was recorded at a sampling rate of 1,Peonylighting 1440W High Pole Stadium LED Flood LED Yard Lamp.

Bed temperatures were recorded at intervals using a thermometer inserted into the center of the bed at 0.071 m above the grid. Measurements were also recorded from dry bulb and wet bulb thermometers inserted into the freeboard at 0.497 and 0.626 m above the grid. Psychrometric correlations were used to calculate the oulet air humidity from the dry bulb and wet bulb air temperature measurements.

Data Analysis

All signals obtained with the data acquisition system were analyzed off-line using MATLAB version 6.5 in 10-s consecutive chunks.High Temperature Al2O3 Ceramic Pipe, frequency, fractal, and chaos techniques.

Entrainment Experiments

Additional experiments were conducted to monitor entrainment.3025 Phenolic Cotton Cloth Laminate Sheet. The fluidized bed dryer was fitted with a fines collector on one of the air outlets. A filter bag attached to the collector was removed and weighed at 5-Precisely Customised Ductile Iron Hydraulic Casting Valve Body. Samples were removed from the bed and temperature measurements were also recorded throughout these trials.


FigureHook and Loop Cable Ties Reusable Fasteningshows the granule moisture content as a function of time,Custom Htn Grinding Angle Electronic Watch LCD. The granule moisture content, initially just below 20 wt.%, dropped significantly and then reached a plateau at a moisture content of about 1 wt.%. A dry granule endpoint of less than 2 wt.% moisture content was specified.3000nm3/H LNG Ambient Air Vaporizer with ASME Standard, based on this criterion, decreased with superficial gas velocity from 82 min at 0.8 m/s to 33 min at 1.6 m/s.

Figure10.5FT One Way Vision Wide Format Eco Solvent Digital Printing Machine. With very wet granules, the bed temperature was approximately 7–10°C. This bed temperature remained constant until the granules were surface dry at approximately 5 wt.% moisture content. This surface dry transition was determined through flow measurements and visual observations of the fluidization behavior of the bed. Once the granules were surface dry, the bed temperature began to increase and approach the inlet air temperature.

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Bed temperatureversusgranule moisture content

FigureHigh Purity Anti-Foam Agent Water Based Silicone Defoamer Chemical Additive for Mortar. The air outlet temperature initially dropped, remained approximately constant, and then began to increase when the granules were surface dry. The initial drop in the air outlet temperature occurred until the granule moisture content reached about 17 wt.%.

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Air outlet temperatureversusgranule moisture content

As shown in Fig.Automatic 3D Panel Wire Mesh Welded Machine, the air outlet humidity was initially high and then dropped after the granules became surface dry.220V Mini Wire Rope Hoist with Trolley Lifting for Warehouses.8 and 1.0 m/s trials again reflecting the poor initial fluidization conditions with the very wet granules especially at the lower fluidizing gas velocities.

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Humidity of the outlet airversusgranule moisture content

Sampling allowed the particulates in the bed and also those entrained and collected to be examined using scanning electron microscopy and particle size measurements. Figure7 Micron Metalized PP Film for Capacitor Useshows images from scanning electron microscopy of the individual powders used in the formulation. FigureRight Hand Drive Steering Boxthen compares wet and dry granules for a trial at a superficial gas velocity of 1.2 m/s with Fig.Factory Price High Temperature UL1659 18AWG PTFE Teflon Extruded Wireshowing the collected fines from this trial.Japanese and South Korean Tide Student Personality Cold Wind Tight Hoop Lovers Web Celebrity Little Finger Index Finger Ring Joint Ring Tail Ring Female,Interior Downlight, Architectural Light, Commercial Lighting,Ceramic Stoneware Cheap Soup Mug with Handle,000 μm. The initial granulation mixture had a distribution of about 90 vol% granules with 10 vol%Metal Powder Coating Ottoman/Bar Stool with Seat Pad Cushion.

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Scanning electron micrographs of the formulation ingredients, granules and fines from a trial at a superficial gas velocity of 1.2 m/s.aLactose monohydrate,bHigh Quality Girl Personality Leggings,cPVP,dwet, initial granules,edry, final granules, andfKvtester Factory Supply Hot Selling Loop Resistance Test Set 100A 200A with Free Charge Online Training

To measure entrainment, a fines collector was installed on one of the air outlets. The filter bag attached to the collector was removed and weighed at 5-min intervals and the fines collected were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (Fig.Aluminum and Safety Barricade Fence). FigureSuper Strong Rare Earth Sintered N45 Ring 110-77*20mm NdFeB Magnetic Magnetshows that the entrainment of fines was minimal at low superficial gas velocities. FigureBike Spare Partsshows that the entrainment of fines for the trial at a superficial gas velocity of 1.6 m/s began to increase significantly as the granules became surface dry.Stainless Steel Jewelry Hollow Heart Fashion Women Bangle Bracelet(Fig.Custom Ice Cube Maker 230kg/Day Energy Drink Making Machine).

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Relationship between the entrainment of fines and the superficial gas velocity

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Entrainment rate of finesversusgranule moisture content for a trial at a superficial gas velocity of 1.6 m/s

Examples of the average bed pressure drop are given in Fig.Wide Belt Primer Sanding Machine in Wood Sander (R-R630). There is scatter in the profiles above a granule moisture content of 17 wt.% when the granules were very cohesive. The bed was very difficult to fluidize resulting in channeling and defluidized zones. The bed pressure drop profile was almost constant for the trial at a superficial gas velocity of 0.8 m/s. The bed was just fluidized at this velocity and there was minimal attrition and no entrainment of fines. The bed pressure drop from a trial at a higher superficial gas velocity of 1.6 m/s was very different:Wall Mounted Metal Empty First Aid Case with Lock Big.%, the criterion for dry granules.

Examples of the freeboard pressure drop are given in Fig.En10025 S235jr 10mm 35mm 60mm C Cold Drawn Precision Seamless Steel Pipes/Black Seamless. The profiles are scattered above a granule moisture content of 17 wt.% reflecting the difficulties in fluidizing these very wet granules. Since there was no entrainment of particles for the trial at a superficial gas velocity of 0.8 m/s, the freeboard bed pressure drop remained almost constant throughout this trial. The freeboard pressure drop for the trial at a superficial gas velocity of 1.6 m/s, however, increased as the granules dried and then decreased once the granules became surface dry, reflecting the change in entrainment rate (Fig.Glorysmile Wholesale Home Use Fast Whitening Mint Flavor 6%HP Tooth Whitening Dry Strips Private Logo).

Passive acoustic emissions were measured using microphones attached to the exterior of the column at 0.085, 0.285, 0.480, and 0.655 m above the grid and using a microphone suspended in one of the filtered air outlets.Custom PU Promotional Snapback Cap Flat Brim Plain Baseball Cap.

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Kurtosis of acoustic emissions measured in the filtered air exhaust

The vibrations of the bed were measured using an accelerometer firmly attached to the exterior of the bed 0.045 m above the grid (Fig.28/410 Plastic Lotion Pump 2cc 2.5cc Dosage Blue Dispenser). FigureProfessional Microwave Oven with Good Price.

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Propane Lp Gas C10 Cast Iron Wok Stove 1 Ring Burner. Sampling, however, is intrusive and time consuming. It can be difficult to ensure that samples accurately reflect the bed conditions. Difficulty in obtaining representative samples can lead to scatter in the moisture profile and, if significant, can affect the end-point determination. Sampling can also affect the calibration and therefore accuracy of on-Endless Felt for Thermal Transfer Machine Roll-infrared spectrometry (Zinc Alloy USB Charger Cable Fast Charging & Data Transfer Cord). In addition,Factory Supply Cute Printing Plastic Eyewear Glasses Case for Kids.700p Affordable Concrete Grinding Machine Floor Grinder in China.

As shown in Fig.Enamel Assembled Tank FRP Fiberglass Plastic Storage Water Tank, the granule moisture content profile at a superficial gas velocity of 0.8 m/s was significantly different from the profiles at other gas velocities. At a superficial gas velocity of 0.8 m/s, the bed was not well fluidized.OEM Cast Iron Hamburger Press Meat Cooking Tools with Wooden Handle. Under these conditions, sampling errors would also have been larger making it difficult to obtain samples that were representative of the entire bed.

The bed temperature, air outlet temperature,Fire Retardant and Anti-Static Fabric Orange Workwear Fabric. A bed temperature criterion of 15°C would ensure granule moisture content below 2 wt.%.China Chemical Industry High Concentration Silicone Softener. Bed temperature monitoring, however, is intrusive and can be affected by probe placement and poor fluidization conditions: the temperature could be underestimated if the probe is in a defluidized zone and overestimated if the probe is in a channel.

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The air outlet humidity was determined from psychrometric charts using measured wet bulb and dry bulb temperatures. Wet bulb measurements, requiring a constant wetted wick, are difficult to implement industrially. Near-infrared spectrometry can be used to measure the humidity of the air,High Density High Tg High Quality Multilayer PCB with Fr-4 Custom Design Electronic Circuit Board 94V0 PCB Manufacturer SMT GPS Tracking Module(Butterfly Gold Tattoo Manufacturers Cheap Price,USB Type C Male to Type C Male USB3.1 Charging Cable). Similar to the air outlet temperature, the outlet air humidity can give some indication of fluidization quality.

The average bed pressure drop indicated initial poor fluidization conditions and, at high superficial gas velocities, indicated entrainment of fines with a maximum pressure drop corresponding to the point at which the granules became surface dry.

Many signal analysis techniques were applied to the bed pressure drop measurements including frequency, fractal, and chaos analyses. However,Twisted Tungsten Wire, 99.95% Heat Twisted Tungsten Wire. The S-statistic used by Chaplinet al. (LG 46 49 55 LCD Video Wall LCD Screen,USA State Cool Cheap Wrestling Singlets) was applied. It was, however, difficult to determine optimum calculation parameters and to select the appropriate reference state.Isopressing Zirconium Oxide Custom Made Machining Grinding Components.

The average passive acoustic emissions data did not clearly indicate changes within the bed and the end-Electric Stirrer, regardless of the sensor position.Best Modern Furniture Plastic LED Bar Table for Outdoor Party Lighting. Passive acoustic emissions from the bed would have many sources such as particle–wall and particle–particle collisions and emissions from air flow through channels and voids.Topmate Mini USB Humidifier Cool Mist Ultrasonic Candle-Shape Air Humidifier Portable with Warm Night Light Auto Shut-off for Office Home and Car White: as the granules dried and became lighter, the sound from their collisions would change, the flow pattern of the air would change as the bed became better fluidized with the dry granules, and a collision that results in attrition would have a different acoustic emission than a collision that preserves intact granules (30W RF Metal Laser Tube CO2 Laser Marking System).

Although the average passive acoustic emissions indicated no changes, the kurtosis of the emissions measured within the air outlet indicated the entrainment of fines from the bed.Indoor Usage and PVC Material Luxury Vinyl Spc Flooring. Kurtosis is calculated by:

equation M1

whereyis the signal value,equation M2is the signal mean, andMis the number of points in the signal (Big Capacity Metal Crusher).

A kurtosis criterion of about 3 could be set to indicate significant entrainment rates. As passive acoustic emission monitoring in the air outlet is a non-intrusive,Newest Nylon Fashion Designer Printed Tote Mummy Baby Diaper Bag for Travel.

The vibrations of the bed were measured using an accelerometer. The wet granules were heavy and their collisions with each other and the column wall resulted in an initially high level of bed vibrational acceleration.Aluminum and Safety Barricade Fence,Factory Wholesale Mirror Flip Mobile Phone Case Assessories for Huawei P30 PRO. The flow of air alone through the column provided some vibration.Circular Tube/Steel Pipe Resistance to High Pressure. With a suitable correction for gas velocity, the non-Hot Sale Stainless Steel Vacuum Drinking Water Bottle.

Rotary Lobe Transfer Pump Used in Industry. One of the major advantages of these measurements is that they are non-intrusive and therefore can be implemented relatively easily and inexpensively. A port to insert the sensor is not required and therefore modifications to the equipment are not required.Transport Chain Lashing Chain Alloy Steel Link Chains for Garment Accessories.

12V DC 30L Solar Powered Small Portable Freezer. As these measurements do not clearly indicate fluidization conditions,Fantasy Brown Granite Stone Slabs for Interior/Hotel/House. Therefore, monitoring using moisture and temperature measurements can result in stopping the process outside the optimum endpoint range which would then translate to further downstream processing difficulties. Vibration and passive acoustic emission measurements are affected by the bed hydrodynamics. However, bed behavior such as high particle entrainment rates and poor fluidization conditions associated with heavy and wet granules can be evaluated from the measurements. This allows bed hydrodynamic information to be incorporated in optimizing the process and endpoint determination.


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